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- Table Of Content
A new paradigm of the organization of agricultural research which linked the two International Research Centers, CIMMYT in Mexico and IRRI in the Philippines, with the National Agricultural Research Institutions of the developing countries led to the Green Revolution. This new cooperative framework was conceived by the leaders of the Rockefeller Foundation and the Ford Foundation and carried forward and strengthened by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research. Now for the first time, a book written by H.K. Jain, a former Director of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, who saw it all happen, provides in a single publication a complete and coherent account of the scientific discoveries, new technologies, and policy decisions, and their impact on world food production. The book goes on to examine the future direction of agriculture as it evolves in the 21st century and the new technologies which will be needed. Once the science of modern agriculture considered in the first six chapters, was in place, traditional agriculture started to change in the early years of the 20th century as described in chapter 7. Chapters 8 and 9 focus on the dwarf plant-types of wheat and rice selected by farmers in Japan and Taiwan respectively. They became the source of genes for fertilizer responsive, high-yielding varieties of wheat at CIMMYT in Mexico and rice at IRRI in the Philippines. It is these varieties and others developed subsequently by multi-disciplinary groups of scientists in the national agricultural research systems of many developing countries, which spearheaded the Green Revolution. Following the establishment of the two International Agricultural Research Centers, Governments in many developing countries took unprecedented decisions to reorganize and strengthen their institutional infrastructure for research and development to foster such collaboration, and in order to evolve high-yielding varieties of their own, better adapted to the diverse agro-ecological conditions of their country and with grain quality characteristics preferred by their people. The impact of the high-yielding varieties on the production of wheat and rice in the developing countries is considered in Chapter 10. The new technologies came at a critical time when the densely populated countries of South Asia were facing serious food shortages. But it has had its costs and there is a growing realization now among the scientists that the world would need a different kind of high-yield agricultural technology in the years to come. It will have to be sustainable and safe for human health and for the environment, protecting the natural resources of land, soils, water and agro-biodiversity. The last Chapter considers some of the new concepts and directions of research which the scientists are now pursuing.
|Title||The Green Revolution : History, Impact and Future (Student Edition)|
|Table of Content||Foreword, Preface 1) Origin and Advance of Traditional Agriculture, First Farming Villages, Hypotheses on Origin, Genetically Gifted Individuals, Selection Pressures on Domesticated Plants, Adaptive Radiation and the Golden Age of Landraces, Hybridisation and Heredity, Early Concepts of Crop Nutrition : The Age of Organic Manures Saving Crops from Diseases and Pests Ancient and Traditional Irrigation Practices Traditional Farm Implements, Scientific Discoveries Paved the Way for Modern Agriculture 2) Mendel’s Discoveries and Scientific Plant Breeding, Segregation of genes, Independent Assortment of Genes, Significance of Mendel’s Discoveries for Plant Breeding, Multiple Alleles, Phenotype and Genotype, Role of the Environment, genes for Quantitative Traits 3) The Advent of Inorganic Fertilisers, Liebig and the Advent of Inorganic Fertilisers, Soil Fertility and Cropping Systems, The Rothamsted Experiments, Development of Fertiliser Industry, Micronutrients 4) Pest and Disease Management, Advent of Pesticides, Organic Pesticides, Scientists in Organic Pesticide Research, Chemicalisation of Agriculture and the Environment, The Balance Sheet, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) 5) Modern Systems of Irrigation, On-farm Management, Modern Methods, Irrigation Works, Growing Role of Irrigation Pumps in, Developing Countries 6) New Farm Machines, The Advent of Tractor, The Combine Harvester, Tractor in Developing Countries 7) Transition To Modern Agriculture, Traditional vs. Modern Agriculture, Early Impact of Modern Agriculture, Hybrid Maize, Sugarcane, The Scientific Breakthrough in Improvement of Sugarcane, New Methods, Crosses at Java and Barbados, Coimbatore Contributions, Potato, Improvement of Potato, Transformation into a Temperate Crop, Introgression of Genes from Wild Species, Re-tropicalisation and Extension of Potato to Developing Countries, The Developing Countries Turnaround for the Modernisation Process 8) A Breakthrough In Wheat Yields, The Green Revolution Technology, Tenetic Improvement of Wheat, Wheat Research in India, The Yield Barrier, The Fertiliser Response, Scientists Identify a New Research Priority, The European Experience, The Advent of Semidwarf Spring Wheats, Evolution of Norin 10, Norin 10 Moves to the Americas, Evolution of Gaines, The Mexican Wheat Improvement Programme, Norman E. Borlaug’s Semidewarf Spring Wheats, India’s First Brush with the Semidwarf Wheat Vareities, Review by Senior Wheat Scientists, Borlaug’s India Visit, Wider Testing, Evaluation and Release, Government’s New Policy, Reorganisation of Agricultural Research, National Demonstrations of Semidwarf Wheat Varieties, Bulk Import of Seeds From Mexico, Team of scientists Visits Mexico, Pricing Policy, Indian Wheat Scientists Takeover, The All-India Coordinated Wheat Improvement Project, The Coordinators, Borlaug’s Advance Generation Breeding Material, A New Generation of Wheat Varieties, Wheat Breeders in the Coordinated Project, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, State Agricultural Universities, released Varieties in Summary, Genetic Gains, Seed Multiplication Programme, Multilines and Diversification, Homeostasis and Broad Adaptation, Norin 10 Genes and Their Yield Advantage, Wide Adaptation of Mexican Semidewarfs, Genetic Analysis of Dwarfing genes, Molecular Expression of Dwarfing Genes, The Multi-disciplinary Approach, Agronomic Management of the Semidwarf Wheat Varieties, Management of Diseases, Epidemiology of the rust Fungi, Race Nomenclature and Maintenance, Identification of Durable Resistance, Mapping the Migration of Fungal Spores, From Shortage to Surplus, Beyond India, Genes of Green Revolution, Plan-type Genes and Reverse Evolution, Akakomughi, A Forgotton Dwarf Landrace of Japanese Origin, CIMMYT’s Continuing Contributions, A Retructured Wheat Genome, IB/IR Translocation, A Global Center 9) The Rice Revolution, Origin and Evolution of Rice, Genetic Improvement of Rice in India, Pureline Selections, The FAO report, The Indica-Japonica Hybridisation Project, A Breakthrough in Taiwan : The First High-yielding Indica Varieties, A wheat-Rice Parallel, International Rice Research Institute, A New Paradigm of Donor Assistance, IRRI scientists Move with their research Agenda, The Genesis of IR 8, Power of Classical Plant-breeding, First International Testing of IRRI Varieties, IRRI Becomes the Bridge, First introduction of Taichung Native 1 in India, India Missed an Earlier Opportunity, Intensification of Rice Research in India, The all-India Co-ordinated Rice Improvement Project, The New Plant-type Triggers a Massive Hybridisation Programme, Traditional Types to the Rescue, Jaya and Padma-The First Indian High-yielding Rice Varieties, Contributions of Different Research Institutions, Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack, Rice Research Directorate, Hyderabad, Contributions of IARI Scientists, Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, State Agricultural Universities, Leadership in Punjab, Fertiliser Response, Managing Diseases and Insect Pests, Impact on Production and Productivity, IRRI Comes out with a New Generation of Disease and Pest Resistant Varieties, Evolution of IR 36, Significance of Landraces and Traditional Varieties, Genetics of Dwarfing in Rice 10) High-Yielding Varieties Across Countries and Continents : The Impact, Spread of High-yielding Wheat Varieties, High-yielding Varieties from National Institutions, The China Story, Economics Impact of High-yielding Wheat Varieties, Impact on Wheat Production in Mexico and Pakistan, The Australian Experience, Impact in Europe and American, The Impact of Semidwarf, High-Yielding Varieties of Rice, The Genetic Content of Varieties, Economics and Social Impact of the Green Revolution Technology of Rice, The Time was Right 11) Agriculture of The Future: New Directions, Determinants of Modern Agricultural Technology, Search for New Solutions, Resources of Agriculture, Energy Investments in and Returns from, Agriculture Economics of Farm Energy, Improved Photosynthetic Efficiency, Biological Nitrogen Fixation, Conservation Agriculture, Fertiliser Nitrogen Management, Precision Farming, Improved Water Management, Organic Farming, Modern Biotechnology, Author Index, Subject Index|
|Author's Name||H. K. Jain|
|Publisher||Studium Press (India) Pvt. Ltd.|
|Year Of Publication||2012|
|About The Book||No|
|Book size width||6.4|