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Modern agricultural ecosystems, with their vast monocultures of genetically uniform crops, in many ways provide ideal conditions for adapted pests, weeds, and diseases. Despite widespread use of pesticides, global crop losses to pests, weeds, and diseases are still very high (weeds - 37%, insects - 29%, diseases - 22%, others- 12%). A global pest outbreak in one of the major staple food crops could have very serious implications for food security. Genetic Engineering (GE) approaches to crop breeding can greatly facilitate the introgression of novel resistance traits into elite crop cultivars which could provide a route to sustainable crop protection. Genetically Modified (GM) crops expressing the Bt protein are already widely used to control Lepidopteron pests, and herbicide-tolerant GM crops have greatly facilitated weed control. GM papaya that expresses a coat protein from the Papaya ringspot virus has saved Hawaiian papaya production which was close to being abandoned because of the disease. The information on biotechnological approaches for sustainable crop protection is very much scattered. There is no book at present which comprehensively and exclusively deals with the above aspects. The present book is divided into seven sections. The first section deals with agricultural applications of biotechnology. The second section deals with herbicide tolerance in general and herbicide tolerance in soybean, corn, cotton, alfalfa, canaola, sugar beet and coffee in particular. Insect resistance in general and Bt pest management in corn, cotton, potato, brinjal, soybean and rice in particular are dealt in section three. The fourth section deals with molecular diagnostics of plant diseases, disease resistance in general and disease resistance in papaya, plum, sweet potato, cassava, squash, potato, bean, sweet pepper and rice in particular. Nematode resistance in general and nematode resistance in tomato, tobacco, pineapple, potato soybean, sugar beet and cotton in particular have bean dealt in section five. The sixth section deals with combined resistance to herbicides, insect pests and diseases in potato and corn. The last section deals with contribution of biotechnology to IPM, issues in debate of agricultural biotechnology, future prospects and conclusions. This book can serve as a useful reference to policy makers, research and extension workers and students.
- Table Of Content
Title Genetic Engineering for Crop Protection Table of Content SECTION-I BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS IN AGRICULTURE: Introduction: History and current status of agricultural biotechnology, Global status of commercialized biotech/GM crops, Positive impacts of GM crops, Contribution of biotech crops to sustainability, Long-term impact of GM crops, Controversies. Biotechnological Applications in Agriculture: Herbicide tolerance, Insect resistance, Disease resistance, Nematode resistance, Improved nutritional quality, Salt tolerance, Drought tolerance, Biopharmaceuticals, Production of biofuels, Production of useful by-products, Bioremediation. SECTION-II HERBICIDE TOLERANCE: Herbicide Tolerance: Introduction, Weed management strategies, What is herbicide tolerance?, Genetic engineering advances in crop herbicide tolerance, Transgenes for herbicide tolerance, Development of herbicide tolerant plants, Herbicide tolerance in crop plants, Benefits of herbicide-tolerant plants, Herbicide-tolerant crops and crop diseases, Current status of herbicide tolerance, Safety aspects of herbicide tolerance technology, Management of resistance development to weeds in HT crops, Future issues for HT technology, Conclusions. Herbicide Tolerance in Soybean: Soybean weeds, Round Up Ready soybean, Liberty Link soybean, Conclusions. Herbicide Tolerance in Corn: Weed problems in corn, Round Up Ready corn, Liberty Link corn, Combined resistance to Round Up Ready, Liberty Link and insects. Herbicide Tolerance in Cotton: Weed problems in cotton, Bromoxynil-tolerant cotton, Round Up Ready cotton, Liberty Link cotton. Herbicide Tolerance in Alfalfa: Importance of weed control in alfalfa, Round Up Ready alfalfa, Potential benefits of Round Up Ready alfalfa, Weed resistance management in Genuity Round Up, Ready alfalfa, Potential problems with Round Up Ready alfalfa, Conclusions. Herbicide Tolerance in Canola: Weed problems in canola, Round Up Ready canola, Liberty Link canola. Herbicide Tolerance in Sugar Beets: Influence of various weeds on sugar beet root yield, Round Up Ready sugar beets, Benefits of Round Up Ready sugar beets, Deregulation. Herbicide Tolerance in Coffee: Weed problems in coffee, Glufosinate tolerant coffee. SECTION-III INSECT RESISTANCE: Insect Resistance: Intrinsic vulnerability of crops to insect pests, GM approaches to breeding insect resistant crops, Benefits of transgenic insect resistant crops, Genes in defense against insect pests, Impact of insect-resistant transgenic crops, on natural enemies, Future prospects and conclusions. Bt in Pest Management: Introduction, What is Bt?, Mode of action of the endotoxin, Transgenic crops expressing Bt genes, Benefits from Bt crops, Reduction in use of chemical pesticides by Bt crops, Insect resistance to Bt toxins, Bt durability in transgenic crops, Resistance management in Bt transgenics, Adoption of Bt crops in developing countries, Current status of Bt technology for insect resistance, Regulating Bt plants, Future of Bt pest control, Conclusions. Bt Corn: Corn pests, Bt corn, How Bt corn protects from corn borer, Types of Bt corn, Benefits of Bt corn, Effects of Bt corn on non-target organisms, Preventing Bt resistance in pests, Safety of Bt corn, Regulation of Bt corn, Other insect pests controlled by Bt corn, Combined resistance to insect pests in corn, Disease control with Bt corn, Future improvements to corn. Bt Cotton: Cotton industry, Pest problems in cotton, Bt cotton, Genetics of Bt-cotton, Performance of released Bt cotton hybrids, Benefits of Bt cotton, Role of Bt cotton in environmental protection, Biosafety tests and assessment of toxicity to non-target, Organisms, Emerging pests on Bt cotton in India, Development of resistance, Resistance management, Opportunities for future, Conclusions. Bt Potato: Colorado potato beetle, Bt potato resistant to Colorado beetle, Potato tuber moth, Bt potato resistant to tuber moth, Bt potato with multiple pest resistance, Conclusions. Bt Brinjal: Introduction, Brinjal fruit and shoot borer, Btbrinjal, Bt brinjal controversy. Bt Soybean: Soybean pests, Bt soybean. Bt Rice: Major rice pests, Bt rice, Benefits of Bt rice, Future research and regulatory needs, Conclusions. SECTION-IV DISEASE RESISTANCE: Molecular Diagnostics of Plant Diseases: Plant disease diagnosis, ELISA diagnostic kits, Direct tissue blotting, Nucleic acid probes, Future prospects and conclusions. Disease Resistance: Introduction, Factors affecting plant disease resistance, Accessing and exploiting genetic diversity, Plant genomics, GM approaches to disease resistance in crops, Genes in defense against diseases, Conclusions. GM Papaya Resistant to Ringspot Virus: Papaya ringspot virus, GM papaya, Hawaiian experience with transgenic PRSV-resistant, Papaya, Achieving “durable” resistance. GM Plum Resistant to Plum Pox Virus: Plum pox virus, GM plum, Conclusions. GM Sweet Potato Resistant to Feathery Mottle Virus: Feathery mottle virus, GM sweet potato. GM Cassava Resistant to Viruses: Cassava virus diseases, GM cassava. GM Squash Resistant to Viruses, Squash virus problems, GM squash, GM squash varieties. GM Potato Resistant to Late Blight: Potato late blight, GM potato. GM Bean Resistant to Golden Mosaic Virus: Bean golden mosaic virus, GM bean. GM Sweet Pepper Resistant to Cucumber Mosaic Virus: Cucumber mosaic virus on sweet pepper, GM sweet pepper. GM Rice Resistant to Blast, Sheath and Bacterial Blight: Rice diseases, GM rice. SECTION-V NEMATODE RESISTANCE: Nematode Resistance: Introduction, Biotechnological approaches for nematode resistance, Conclusions. GM Crops Resistant to Nematodes: GM cotton resistant to root-knot nematode, GM cotton resistant to reniform nematode, GM soybean resistant to cyst nematode, GM pineapple resistant to reniform nematode, GM potato resistant to cyst nematode, GM sugar beet resistant to cyst nematode, GM tomato resistant to root-knot nematode, GM tobacco resistant to root-knot nematode. SECTION-VI COMBINED RESISTANCE TO HERBICIDES/INSECT PESTS/DISEASES: GM Potato Resistant to Colorado Beetle and Viruses: Potato viruses, GM potato resistant to Colorado beetle and potato virus Y, GM potato resistant to Colorado beetle and potato leaf, roll virus, Biosafety. GM Corn Resistant to Herbicides and Insect Pests: Weed and insect problems on corn, GM corn resistant to herbicides and insect pests. GM Rice Resistant to Insect Pests, Diseases and Herbicides: Combined resistance to stem borer and herbicide, Glufosinate, Combined resistance to stem borer, sheath and, bacterial blight, Combined resistance to blast and bacterial blight. Combined Resistance to Herbicides and Viruses: A Bar gene in combination with virus resistance gene, Claims of the patents. SECTION-VII FUTURE PROSPECTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Contribution of Biotechnology to IPM: Introduction, Biotechnology in biopesticide development, Biotechnology and crop resistance, Future perspectives. Debatable Issues in Agricultural Biotechnology: Potential costs and benefits, Impacts of biotechnology/ biosafety, Negative impacts of GM crops, Moral issues. Future Prospects and Conclusions: Future of transgenic crops, Challenges and opportunities, Future prospects, Conclusions, References, Subject Index Page No. 405 Author's Name P. Parvatha Reddy Publisher Studium Press LLC Year Of Publication 2014 ISBN 10 1-626990-34-4 ISBN 13 No About The Book No Binding type No Book Size(len) No Series No book size(hei) 9.8 Book size width 7.5 Edition 1st
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